Identify the following nine threats to internal validity: history, maturation, regression, attrition, testing, instrumentation, observer bias, demand characteristics, and placebo effects.
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Chapter 11 Learning Goals (keep the following questions in mind as you read the chapter)
- Review three threats to internal validity: design confounds, selection effects, and order effects.
- Identify the following nine threats to internal validity: history, maturation, regression, attrition, testing, instrumentation, observer bias, demand characteristics, and placebo effects.
- Explain how comparison groups, double-blind studies, and other design choices can help researchers avoid many of these threats to internal validity.
- Articulate the reasons why a study might result in null effects: not enough variance between groups, too much variance within groups, or a true null effect.
- Describe at least two ways in which a study might show inadequate variance between groups, and indicate how researchers can identify such problems.
- Explain why large within-groups variance can obscure a between-groups difference.
- Describe three causes of within-groups variance—measurement error, individual differences, and situation noise—and indicate how each might be reduced.
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Use the chapter reviews to help guide you through the reading. As you read, stop to paraphrase the definition of each of the following key terms.
After you finish reading, answer the five review questions below.
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Chapter Eleven Review
Define each of the terms. Write a definition in your own words.
- One-group, pretest/posttest
- Maturation Threat
- History Threat
- Regression Threat
- Regression to the Mean
- Attrition Threat
- Testing Threat
- Instrumentation Threat
- Slection-history Threat
- Slection-attrition Threat
- Observer Bias
- Demand Characteristics
- Double-blind Study
- Masked Design
- Placebo Effect
- Double-blind Placebo Effect
- Null Effect
- Ceiling Effect
- Manipulation Check
- Measurement Error
- Situation Noise
1. For his senior thesis, Jack was interested in viewing whether viewing alcohol advertising would cause college students to drink more alcohol. Jack recruited 25 students for a week-long study. On Monday and Tuesday, he had them use a secure website to record how many alcoholic beverages they had consumed the day before. On Wednesday, he showed them a 30-minute TV show interspersed with entertaining ads for alcohol. The students were asked again on Thursday and Friday to report their alcohol consumption. Jack found that students increased drinking after seeing the advertising and concluded that advertising caused them to drink.
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